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expect实现scp/ssh-copy-id自动填写

expect实现scp/ssh-copy-id自动填写

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expect工具可以实现自动应答,从而达到非交互的目的。

expect具体使用用法比较复杂,中文手册我正在翻译中,以后翻译完了做了整理再补。本文只有几个ssh相关最可能用上的示例。

yum -y install expect

1.1 scp自动应答脚本

以下是scp自动问答的脚本。

[root@xuexi ~]# cat autoscp.exp
#!/usr/bin/expect
########################################################### # description: scp without interactive # # author : 骏马金龙 # # blog : http://www.cnblogs.com/f-ck-need-u/ # ########################################################### set timeout 10 set user_hostname [lindex $argv 0] set src_file [lindex $argv 1] set dest_file [lindex $argv 2] set password [lindex $argv 3] spawn scp $src_file $user_hostname:$dest_file expect { "(yes/no)?" { send "yes\n" expect "*assword:" { send "$password\n"} } "*assword:" { send "$password\n" } } expect "100%" expect eof

用法:autoscp.exp [user@]hostname src_file dest_file [password]

该自动回答脚本可以自动完成主机验证和密码认证,即使已经是实现公钥认证的机器也没问题,因为公钥认证机制默认优先于密码认证,且此脚本的password项是可选的,当然,在没有实现公钥认证的情况下,password是必须项,否则expect实现非交互的目的就失去意义了。

以下是几个示例:

[root@xuexi ~]# ./autoscp.exp 172.16.10.6 /etc/fstab /tmp 123456
spawn scp /etc/fstab 172.16.10.6:/tmp
The authenticity of host '172.16.10.6 (172.16.10.6)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is f3:f8:e2:33:b4:b1:92:0d:5b:95:3b:97:d9:3a:f0:cf.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes          # 主机验证时询问是否保存host key,自动回答yes
Warning: Permanently added '172.16.10.6' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@172.16.10.6's password:                                        # 密码认证过程,自动回答指定的密码"123456"
fstab                                                        100%  805     0.8KB/s   00:00

也可以指定完成的用户名和主机名。

[root@xuexi ~]# ./autoscp.exp root@172.16.10.6 /etc/fstab /tmp 123456
spawn scp /etc/fstab root@172.16.10.6:/tmp
root@172.16.10.6's password:         
fstab                                 100%  805     0.8KB/s   00:00

 

1.2 ssh-copy-id自动应答脚本

以下是在建立公钥认证机制时,ssh-copy-id拷贝公钥到服务端的自动应答脚本。

[root@xuexi ~]# cat /tmp/autocopy.exp
#!/usr/bin/expect

###########################################################
#  description: scp without interactive                   #
#  author     : 骏马金龙                                   #
#  blog       : http://www.cnblogs.com/f-ck-need-u/       #
###########################################################

set timeout 10
set user_hostname [lindex $argv 0]
set password [lindex $argv 1]
spawn ssh-copy-id $user_hostname
    expect {
        "(yes/no)?"
        {
            send "yes\n"
            expect "*assword:" { send "$password\n"}
        }
        "*assword:"
        {
            send "$password\n"
        }
    }
expect eof

用法:autocopy.exp [user@]hostname password

以下是一个示例,

[root@xuexi ~]# /tmp/autocopy.exp root@172.16.10.6 123456
spawn ssh-copy-id root@172.16.10.6
The authenticity of host '172.16.10.6 (172.16.10.6)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is f3:f8:e2:33:b4:b1:92:0d:5b:95:3b:97:d9:3a:f0:cf.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes      # 主机认证时,自动应答yes
Warning: Permanently added '172.16.10.6' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@172.16.10.6's password:                                    # 密码认证时自动输入密码"123456"
Now try logging into the machine, with "ssh 'root@172.16.10.6'", and check in:
 
  .ssh/authorized_keys
 
to make sure we haven't added extra keys that you weren't expecting.

1.3 批量ssh-copy-id自动应答

如果要实现批量非交互,则可以写一个shell脚本调用该expect脚本。例如:

[root@xuexi ~]# cat /tmp/sci.sh
#!/bin/bash

###########################################################
#  description: scp without interactive                   #
#  author     : 骏马金龙                                   #
#  blog       : http://www.cnblogs.com/f-ck-need-u/       #
###########################################################
 
passwd=123456               # 指定要传递的密码为123456
user_host=`awk '{print $3}' ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub`   # 此变量用于判断远程主机中是否已添加本机信息成功
 
for i in $@  
do
        /tmp/autocopy.exp $i $passwd >&/dev/null
        ssh $i "grep "$user_host" ~/.ssh/authorized_keys" >&/dev/null  # 判断是否添加本机信息成功
        if [ $? -eq 0 ];then
                echo "$i is ok"
        else
                echo "$i is not ok"
        fi
done

用法:/tmp/sci.sh [user@]hostname

其中hostname部分可以使用花括号展开方式枚举。但有个bug,最好ssh-copy-id的目标不要是脚本所在的本机,可能会强制输入本机密码,但批量脚本autocopy.exp则没有此bug。

例如:

[root@xuexi tmp]# /tmp/sci.sh 172.16.10.3 172.16.10.6
172.16.10.3 is ok
172.16.10.6 is ok
[root@xuexi tmp]# /tmp/sci.sh 172.16.10.{3,6}
172.16.10.3 is ok
172.16.10.6 is ok
[root@xuexi tmp]# /tmp/sci.sh root@172.16.10.3 172.16.10.6
root@172.16.10.3 is ok
172.16.10.6 is ok

 

转载请注明出处:http://www.cnblogs.com/f-ck-need-u/p/7542210.html


频道:脚本